Argument Essay Where would we be Without Animal Testing? Is the use of animals in research justified? Should animal experimentation be permitted? Animal Testing Pros.The major pro for animal testing is that it aids researchers in finding drugs and treatments to improve. Help With My Pro Animal Testing Essay? Animal Testing Rough Draft Someday in the near future there may be a way to alter animal’s DNA genetically. Medicines, household products, food, and basically everything involved in the life of an average person has to under go a form of testing before it is legal to be. Read this Social Issues Essays and over 84,000 other research documents. Animal Testing: Pros and Cons. Animal Testing Introduction The application of animals to test. Free essay on Pro - Animal Testing and Experimentation Essay available totally free at echeat.com, the largest free essay community. Animal Testing ProCon.org is a nonpartisan, nonprofit website that presents research, studies, and pro and con statements on whether or not animals should be used for. Animal Testing Experimentation Pro Essay.millions animals are maimed, blinded, scalded, force-fed chemicals, genetically. Animal testing is a process that has been going on for centuries for numerous reasons, such as developing medical treatments, determining the toxicity of certain. Free essay on Animal Testing: Pros and Cons available totally free at echeat.com, the largest free essay community.
Pros for Animal Testing
The major pro for animal testing is that it aids researchers in finding drugs and treatments to improve health and medicine. Many Medical Treatments have been made possible by animal testing, including cancer and HIV drugs, insulin, antibiotics, vaccines and many more. It is for this reason that animal testing is considered vital for improving human health and it is also why the scientific community and many members of the public support its use. In fact, there are also individuals who are against animal testing for cosmetics but still support Animal Testing for medicine and the development of new drugs for disease. Another important aspect to note is that animal testing helps to ensure the safety of drugs and many other substances humans use or are exposed to regularly. Drugs in particular can carry significant dangers with their use but animal testing allows researchers to initially gauge the safety of drugs prior to commencing Trials On Humans. This means that human harm is reduced and human lives are saved – not simply from avoidance of the dangers of drugs but because the drugs themselves save lives as well as improve the quality of human life. Scientists typically use animals for testing purposes because they are considered similar to humans. As such, researchers do recognise the limitations and differences but the testing is done on animals because they are thought to be the closest match and best one with regards to applying this data to humans. Cons Against Animal Testing
In animal testing, countless animals are experimented on and then killed after their use. Others are injured and will still live the remainder of their lives in captivity. The unfortunate aspect is that many of these animals received tests for substances that will never actually see approval or public consumption and use. It is this aspect of animal testing that many view as a major negative against the practice, as it seems that the animal died in vain because.
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8 CHAPTER 1.INTRODUCTION Experiments on living animals arose in the early 17century. The history of animaltesting is interesting aspects of what remains a controversial subject today. Animaltesting has a major history oppressed with controversy, although most of these activities occurred as a response to increasing awareness regarding the fact of using animals for experimental purposes. Though animaltesting may at certain times conjure up the image of dubious, the reality is that animaltesting is performed in limitless places around the globe such as universities, medical schools, military defence establishments and many more. As reasons for this usage grow more widely, one of the major reasons for the use of animaltesting is the broadness of its applications (to ensure the safety of new drugs and other pharmaceutical products, to see whether such products might be effective in humans, for general research into the biology of an animal . or the function and action of certain diseases within its body) Major industries that performs the usage of animaltesting in the pharmaceutical and the cosmetic industry both of which needs large scale testing before distributing their products to the public. The pharmaceutical industry is a wide billion.
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AnimalTesting Every year, over 100 million animals are painfully put to death because of animaltesting . Experimentation on animals goes way back since the beginning of time. Typically it is conducted for advancement in scientific research, to test products and food before going out into the market, to find treatments or test medical drugs, and to protect people and the environment. Animal experimentation has been a controversial issue for quite some time, but has yet to be put to an end. Vivisection should be prohibited and there are, in fact, more reliable alternatives to these inhumane experimentations. The acts of animaltesting are extremely cruel and unethical and no living creature should have to endure the variety of pain that test subjects go through without their own consent. Millions of animals suffer from experimentation each year, but that number is not even precise since there are several countries that do not publish their data. Animals can receive something as little as an injection, or something as extreme as an organ transplant. Experiments classify the pain as being mild, moderate, severe, or unclassified. 61% of experiments fall into the category of severe suffering. Many of these severe tests predict from the start that an animal will die. Sometimes scientists try to mimic.
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major pro for animaltesting is that it aids researchers in finding drugs and treatments to improve health and medicine. Many medical treatments have been made possible by animaltesting . including cancer and HIV drugs, insulin, antibiotics, vaccines and many more. It is for this reason that animaltesting is considered vital for improving human health and it is also why the scientific community and many members of the public support its use. In fact, there are also individuals who are against animaltesting for cosmetics but still support animaltesting for medicine and the development of new drugs for disease. Another important aspect to note is that animaltesting helps to ensure the safety of drugs and many other substances humans use or are exposed to regularly. Drugs in particular can carry significant dangers with their use but animaltesting allows researchers to initially gauge the safety of drugs prior to commencing trials on humans. This means that human harm is reduced and human lives are saved - not simply from avoidance of the dangers of drugs but because the drugs themselves save lives as well as improve the quality of human life. Scientists typically use animals for testing purposes because they are considered similar to.
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argument in today’s society is animal research and testing . There is much controversy surrounding the issue not only within biology, but general ethics as well. Some people feel that animal research is ethical because it furthers human well-being, as well as provides mechanisms to cure disease. Other people, however, believe animal research is not ethical because the treatment of the animal is inhumane, unnecessary, and non consensual. I personally feel that animaltesting is very important in the world of medical research and should continue. Many scientists and researchers are for animaltesting . People throughout the world are living better lives because of the advancements made possible from the results of animal research. Researchers within many different medical and scientific organizations agree that animaltesting is absolutely essential for progress. For example, over 70 percent of the Nobel Prize winners in medicine have used animals in their research. Advancements in science through animal research have brought us closer to finding cures for diseases such as cancer and AIDS. Nearly all of the scientists who do research on animals do it because they hope that, while it causes a few to experience pain now, it will help prevent many from feeling pain later.
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Should animaltesting be banned? Should animaltesting be banned? This question has always been highly debated and has periodically been in the headlines of tabloid newspapers due to its controversial nature. In this essay, I will highlight both sides of the argument giving equal weight to each, in an attempt to address some of the issues arising from this topical subject. Those who disagree with animaltesting claim that it is harmful, cruel and scientifically lacking practice. They also claim that the benefits are often misconstrued. In animaltesting . countless animals are experimented on and then killed after their use. Others are injured and will still live the remainder of their lives in captivity. The unfortunate aspect is that many of these animals received tests for substances that will never actually see approval or public consumption and use. It is this aspect of animaltesting that many view as a major negative against the practice. As it suggests that animals die in vain because often no direct benefit to humans occurred from animaltesting . Those against animaltesting believe that alternative such as cellular or computer models are sufficient enough to replace animal models. On the other hand, some.
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2013 AnimalTestingCon or Pro Do you ever think about if you are against or in favor of animal research? Animal experimentation is disputed because some people are favor and some are against. Animal research is used to discover those diseases that are without cure and to give the answers to the scientific community. Additionally, the animal experiments begin in ancient Rome and Greece. In the United States all pharmaceutical companies need first to experiment with the animals before humans. Nevertheless, without animal experimentation many of the most important advances in modern medicine would never have occurred. These experiments are important because scientists need to make sure that medicines are as safe and as good as possible before doctors give them to people and to discover more about how the medication works on human bodies. In the article “AnimalTesting Is Cruel and Immoral Regardless of the Benefits Associated With It,” by George Wright and Steve Hoagland, the authors, argue that the use of animals for medical experiments is an immoral practice. The authors describe why people do not ask if the human species is more deserving of under going medical experiments than the animals . Also, in the article by Peter Singer, he said that if we share with them a.
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centuries people have experimented on animals . There are two main reasons for doing this: first, to find out more about the animals themselves, and, secondly, to test substances and procedures to see if they are harmful (with a view to deciding whether or not they can be used on human beings). In the second category fall cosmetic products as well as medicines and surgical techniques. There is a growing consensus that it is not acceptable to test cosmetic products on animals . This debate is about whether we should experiment on animals for scientific and medical purposes. The debate about the pros and cons of animal experimentation (or 'vivisection') is one that elicits very strong emotions: animal rights activists have resorted to trespass, violence, death threats, and hunger strikes in their single-minded (and sometimes illegal) mission to end this practice. Pros for AnimalTesting The major pro for animaltesting is that it aids researchers in finding drugs and treatments to improve health and medicine. Many Medical Treatments have been made possible by animaltesting . including cancer and HIV drugs, insulin, antibiotics, vaccines and many more. It is for this reason that animaltesting is considered vital for improving.
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AnimalTesting Every year, the United States uses approximately 26 million animals for testing . Animals are used to test the safety of new medications designed for human use. Scientists have used animals to test their products as far back as 500 BC. Supporters of animaltesting have many arguments of why they believe it is justified. I disagree with all of these arguments. I do not think there is any possible way to justify it. Medical animaltesting is morally wrong. Humans make decisions about what they consider is “right” based on their internal morals and external ethics. Morals are internal sets of guidelines that we have set for ourselves to determine what is right or wrong. They show how an individual thinks things should go, according to his or her perspective based on these guidelines. We set these internal guidelines because of our beliefs of what is right or wrong. If we do not follow these morals, we will feel uncomfortable and guilty. Some people may choose to base their morals on ethics. Ethics are rules of conduct that we follow in respect to our culture. They define how things are according to the rules. Ethics are external; they are based on our surrounding culture and social system. We follow ethics because society says it is right. If we do not follow these ethics, we will be faced with.
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Everyone knows that getting shampoo or other products, such as soap, in your eyes stings. Now imagine having shampoo or other beauty products put into your eyes against your will, or not being able to have a say in any treatment acted upon you. Animal testing is a dreadful thing going on in today's world, and there is not sufficient support in the surrounding community to spread the word about the atrocities committed. Animal testing is done on anywhere from 50-100 million animals annually, and it is an on-going research experiment that is supposedly done for our own good. However, the negative implications are not brought into the light enough. The level of discomfort and pain that is inflicted upon the unfortunate animals that we humans use as test subjects is something that the general public likes to push under the rug. In order for things to change, more awareness needs to be raised in order to stop animal testing and the pain it brings to our fellow mammals.
In order to examine this issue, one has to look at both sides of the subject. Through the use of research and studies, I will expose the pros and cons of animal testing. First of all, the negative connotations of these tests will be scrutinized.
Within the world of science, there will always be certain branches that stem towards research on living beings. Animal testing defined is "the use of non-human animals in research and development projects, esp. for the purposes of determining the safety of substances such as food and drugs" (APA) but why must we harm innocent animals for our own safety? A lot of people agree that there should be another, safer alternative- while others don't even know that the products they use every single day.
Published: 23rd March, 2015 Last Edited: 23rd March, 2015
This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers.Animal Testing
The Greeks believed that animals were a lesser form of life because animals could not think like humans did. Furthermore, this thought was continued by Christians who claimed that animals were less significant because they had no soul (Vivisection, 2002). Animal testing is the use of live animals for research in order to better understand the effect of certain substances towards human health. This application has been widely carried out in many industries. Numerous animals have been used for animal testing, such as guinea pigs, rabbits, dogs and mice. The issue of animal testing has become a worldwide focus these days due to arguments brought up by those who are against animal experimentation.
Unquestionably, the practice of animal experimentation has increased tremendously compared to the past. According to Shandilya (2008), it is estimated that 20 million animals are used for animal experimentation yearly for the purpose of medicine and for testing other products. Findings from studies indicate that less than 10 percent of pure psychological researches use animals as test subjects, which do not include animal subjects used for cross-over medical experimentation (American Psychological Association, n.d. cited in Harding, L. 2001). However, there are some who state that animal experiments are cruel and immoral, besides violating an animal's rights. This has caused many individuals to agree with the movements of anti-vivisection organisations due to brutal treatment towards animals.
Although there are laws regarding animal testing enforcing the reduction in the use of animals for vivisection, opponents of animal experimenting are still debating about the subject of legalizing it.
If we view this subject from a broader perspective, it can be seen that animal testing should be legalized as it aids scientist in the discoveries of new drugs and treatments to make health and medicine better, an animal's life does not hold as much value as a human's, and it is the most precise way to find out the effects of substances on a living organism.
This research paper will explain why animal testing should be legalized. Research findings are confined to the United States of America, since the subject of animal testing is highly debated there and the progress of this issue in the US is relative to other countries.
2.0 Body of Report2.1 Animal testing helps in the development of drugs and treatments.
Currently, humans are often exposed to various diseases which are life threatening, which includes existing diseases or new forms of diseases due to mutations and changes in the environment. Hence, researchers are working hard in finding cures for all these illnesses. From here, it can be seen that animal testing is essential in the sustenance of human health. Animals will be used to study the effect of newly invented drugs, whether it will help in curing the disease.
Speaking of the positive outcomes of animal testing, this includes the development of new medicine and treatments. Derbyshire (2004) mentioned that many medical advances used animal testing; dogs were used to develop the production of insulin, whereas primates were utilized in the manufacture of a powerful anti-rejection drug, cyclosporine. Besides this, discoveries of various vaccines have evolved through animal experimentation. From here, it can be seen that animal testing can guide us to discoveries of new knowledge about living organisms.
Many drugs have been invented to fulfill the aim of remedying diseases. However, the side effects of newly invented drugs remain unknown. Therefore, animal testing allows the evaluation of the danger of drugs before being used upon humans which will greatly reduce the risk before any human based trials are carried out (About Animal Testing, n.d.). Drugs that are tested safe can then be used to save millions of valuable human lives. The future of medical science still relies on animal testing, and this clearly shows a need in legalizing animal testing.
There are some people who claim that the effects of drugs tested on animals may not be the same to humans. Arthritis drug Vioxx, which caused 140 000 heart attacks and strokes in United States of America, was withdrawn from the global market even though it appeared to be safe when tested in animals (Archibald, 2004). However, scientists have proven that animals are extremely alike to humans and experiments done on them would produce similar results obtained through future human experiments (About Animal Testing, n.d.). Hence, carrying out animal testing on drugs would improve the quality of human life indirectly.
Therefore, to sum it all up, animal testing should be legalized because it assists researchers in medical treatments besides drugs discovery, improves health and medicine and is able to test the safety of drugs. Alternatives of animal testing are not as plausible as they are not as accurate as the results obtained from tests conducted upon animals. Hence, animal testing should be encouraged instead of being suppressed.2.2 The importance of human lives is given priority over animal lives.
Differences existing between humans and animals cause animals to receive treatments which are different and unequal although both of them are alive. As animals differ from humans as they do not have conscience, they are considered inferior to humans when it comes to the value of life. Seeing that the lives of humans are viewed as more valuable than animal lives, animals will have to be sacrificed in animal experimentation.
The pros and cons of animal testing were debated with both sides being able to produce solid reasons for their stands. From the view of sentiency, it is mentioned that all living things are morally equivalent. However, the lives of humans are superior over the lives of animals (Garner, 2005). Authorities have to make a choice between the welfare of humans and the welfare of animals. Which one is more important, the life of a human or the life of an animal? As Archibald (2004) points out, most people are willing to sacrifice the lives of animal in animal testing to save human lives.
Even though human welfare is the main concern, the welfare of an animal is still taken into account by minimizing the suffering of animals when conducting animal experimentations. The Animal Welfare Act had been formed and reviewed constantly to protect animals and decrease the number of vivisections carried out (Monamy, 2000). Every experiment involving the usage of animals is normally administered with anesthesia. In conjunction with this, the experiments will not be repeated or animals used will be euthanized when brutal treatment is involved. Animal testing can be accepted as it allows the improvement of human life quality without the suffering of animals (Garner, 2005).
Those who are against animal testing argued that animals have the right to live peacefully. Animal testing is regarded as unkind treatment towards animals as it violates animal rights as their lives are valuable as well (Le Fanu, 2003). Nevertheless, their arguments are weak because animals lack the sense of judgment, and therefore are not subjected to moral claims and animal rights (Cohen, 1986). Hence, they cannot be compared with human life. As long as the animal is experimented upon without pain, the welfare of the animal is not violated. Therefore, it is acceptable to legalize the activity of animal testing as human life should be prioritized.
Although there are many who are against animal experimentation, the points asserted are not h3 enough to discontinue the activity of animal testing. Supporters of animal testing affirm that animals should not have equal rights with humans as both of these cannot be compared. Animals lack the sense of judgment, thus human lives always come first before animal lives. Animals are considered to be protected as long as animals receive minimum amount of suffering. So animal testing should be legalized in order to save more human lives.2.3 Animal testing is helpful for studying the effects of substances.
Many new chemical substances are produced every year to meet the demand of the global market such as in agriculture, medicine and cosmetic products. The credits should be given to animal testing. The effect of that particular substance has been studied to produce countless helpful products. This can increase the longevity of humans besides improving the human standard of living.
By conducting experiments on animals, the researcher can gain invaluable information from the living specimen. Winston (2006) mentioned that 70% of the Nobel prizes for physiology or medicine are contributed from animal testing. Hence, it is clearly shown that by performing researches on animals by studying the effects of a substance can bring a huge impact upon the world. The discovery of knowledge will be delayed or remain undiscovered if animal testing is not carried out.
As stated by Le Fanu (2003), primates offer the best experimental models as they have 99% similarity in genes with humans. Animal testing can be carried out on primates to ensure the safety of some drugs before being tested on humans. The chance for both organisms exhibiting the same effect is high due to the similarity of their genes. This in turn can reduce the risks faced by humans when commencing the trials. Hence, animals are good tools for learning the effects of various substances.
In spite of this, people who are in opposition to animal testing argue that it must not be legalized just because animal experimentation leads to medical breakthroughs and the outcome is more rewarding. This statement is insufficient to justify the drawbacks of animal testing (Derbyshire, 2004). On the other hand, it is proven that the beneficial outcome outweighs its drawbacks, so it is rational to legalize the activity of animal testing. Without studying the effects of substances using animal testing, most of the major vaccines against disease like polio, rubella and hepatitis B used today would not exist (Derbyshire, 2004). New drugs undergo in vitro research, computer modeling and animal testing before being tested on humans. Thus, every step is vital in this process of studying the effects before a drug is introduced into the market.
In short, the effects of a substance can be study by carrying out animal testing which can provide invaluable information besides the anatomy of some animals are similar to humans. Even though animal experimentation its disadvantages, there are still many benefits that can gain by carrying out animal testing. Thus, legalization of animal testing must be accepted. Moreover, it can be a good tool for education and research purposes.
Normally, the usage of animals for animal testing delineated as cruelty towards animals and should not be legalized. However, it is impossible to ban the practice of animal experimentation due to the benefits brought by animal research towards mankind. Animal testing is a noble action to sustain the welfare of humans. Since the practice of animal testing cannot be stopped, the welfare of animals can only be protected by another approach.
The principle of "Three Rs", that is "refinement", "reduction" and "replacement" can be practiced. The researchers are pledged to reduce the number of animals used when performing a research. To use the least number of resources to obtain the fastest results, researchers have the tendency of using a smaller number of animals during their research. This is an act that showed the willingness of mankind to reduce the cruelty towards the animals. Besides this, scientists were asked to lessen the degree of suffering of the animal. This can be attained by exclude some needless harmful actions involving the animals. Lastly, alternative methods should be used whenever possible to replace the usage of animal testing (Derbyshire, 2006).
For instance, the welfare of animals can be secured by doing so. The practice of animal experimentation should compromise between the welfare of humans and animals so that harmony can be achieved. Animal experimentation still can be practiced, and the laws should be strictly enforced so that it is not violated by irresponsible people.
Due to the increased usage of animal testing, the issue of animal experimentation is getting highly debated and remains relentless. After examining several points, it has revealed that animal testing should be legalized as it helps in the progress of medicine and health, human life is more valuable than animal life, and helps to learn the outcome of a substance on a living organism. Day by day, anti-vivisectionists try to rule out animal testing by looking at this issue from the animal's point of view. Concurrently, supporters of animal experimentation were able to refute their arguments, by claiming the welfare of humans should always come first before animals. They viewed the subject of animal testing from a broader perspective and the long term advantages that come from animal experimentation. Life is never perfect, some sacrifices have to make to achieve success for a better future. Nonetheless, animal research should be carried out as its advantages are more significant than the disadvantages.
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