A case study focuses on an individual or organization.
According to the sixth edition of the "Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association," a case study presents a compilation of information regarding a person or entity that identifies a problem and presents a solution or indicates the need for further study. Although the specific requirements for writing a case study may vary depending upon the field or course, some general concepts remain constant.Confidentiality
Since a case study focuses on a real person or situation, writers must protect the confidentiality of participants without compromising the information provided. The APA publication manual suggests changing specific characteristics like names or ages and giving only details that are significant to the study or creating amalgams of participants. No one reading the study, including the subject and those who know him well, should be able to clearly identify the focus of the study.Components
The sections of the study depend upon the field. For instance, many APA style papers include sections such as method, results and discussion. Some require the inclusion of a literature review to establish what current publications say about the topic. Others, such as nursing case studies, may follow more specific structures including sections to explain the ailment, give the subject's history, explain the nurse's assessment, list diagnosis and treatment options and end with a discussion section. Writers should choose components that best fit the field and purpose of the particular study.
All APA style papers including case studies need to have a title page, abstract and running head. The title page includes the name of the work, writer and institution. The abstract, or summary of the paper, lists the important traits of the subject, the concern and the resolution or questions that spring from the study. The running head appears in a header that gives the title of the paper on the left side of each page and the page number on the right.Acknowledgements
APA style case studies also need to acknowledge borrowed material through the use of signal phrases or parenthetical citations that give the author's last name and the publication year. Direct quotes also give a page or paragraph number. The other information about the source, such as title, publisher and URL for online sources appears on a references page at the end of the paper, where each source appears in alphabetical order with a hanging indent. The specific format varies depending upon the type of source.References
Providing constructive review comments in a succinct yet courteous manner is no easy task. One benefit of completing peer reviews in this class is sharpening your skills in this area, as they can prove quite valuable in your workplace (see Angela's DQ 7 post from last week as a recent example).
Which challenges did you face in providing your first peer review? How did you approach these challenges?
Receiving review comments also presents challenges. Your two reviews are presented in entirely different formats; I use margins in Word Comment, and your peer provides feedback in paragraph form. Your reviewers also focused on different areas. Class members focused only on content, organization and format. My review included specific notes on grammar/mechanics and style, in addition to the areas reviewed by your peers.
Did you find the reviews to be helpful? Relate at least one specific area that the reviews helped you to address. If you did not find the reviews to be helpful, please let us know how we could improve the process.
The one challenge I faced when providing the first peer review was to make sure that the criticism and information I was offering was coming off in a positive direction. I wanted to keep my review mainly on the format of the paper and not so much grammar and spelling. I felt that the format of this memo was very important because it allows the reader to easily flow through the document.
I found the reviews to be helpful; one example from my peer review was to include a subheading for each paragraph, so that the reader can quickly move from section to section and quickly identify what they are looking for. After looking over the review I found that the information I received really helped made my document much stronger and concise.
Lecture 1. Literary text as a poetic structure
1. Verbal and supraverbal layers of the literary text
2. Principles of poetic structure cohesion
2.1 Principle of incomplete representation
2.2 Principle of analogy and contrast
2.3 Principle of recurrence
1. Verbal and supraverbal layers of the literary text
At the same time when one reads a text of imaginative literature one cannot but see another layer gradually emerging out of these verbal sequences. One sees that word sequences represent a series of events, conflicts and circumstances in which characters of the literary work happen to find themselves.
One sees that all these word-sequences make a composition, a plot, a genre, and a style, that they all go to create an image of reality and that through this image the author conveys his message, his vision of the world.
Plot, theme, composition, genre, style, images and the like make the supraverbal ['suːprə] (poetic) layer which is revealed in verbal sequences. The supra-verbal and the verbal layers of the text are thus insepa¬rable from each other.
Thus, the text of a literary work is not a mere linguistic entity, it is something more in¬volved. The involved nature of the literary text makes it entirely individual (unique), makes it essentially unsubstitutable for any other word sequences. When we substi¬tute some part of a literary text, i.e. some given word sequence for a synonymous one, we simultaneously change the content, for the content of the literary work is indi¬visible from its text. A linguistic text, on the contrary, allows of substitution; one verbal sequence may have a sense similar to that of another verbal sequence, consequently, one verbal sequence may stand for another.
E.g. «The mass-produced middle-class boys I had to teach were bad enough» when viewed just as a linguistic entity it allows of a number of substitutions, such as: "the boys from middle-class I had to teach were all alike", or "there was no any personality among the boys I had to teach", etc. When this sentence is a part of a literary text its meaning cannot be completely rendered in so many other synonymous words. Something of the meaning will be left unconveyed. And this something is the implication the sentence acquires from the whole of the supraverbal layer. To understand what "the mass-produced
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How to Write a Descriptive Essay
Edited by Nicole Eakin, Ben Rubenstein, Flickety, Kyrie Alazen and 28 others The key to writing the perfect descriptive essay is creating a vivid image in your reader's mind using the five senses. Here are some steps to help you create a strong descriptive essay. Edit Steps
Method 1 of 3: Prewriting for your Essay
Pick a topic. Descriptive essays generally focus on a person, a place, an event, or a thing. Writers convey an idea about their topic by describing the topic for the reader in a ‘show, not tell’ manner. Showing and not telling means that you paint a picture for your reader. For example, instead of saying, “There were trees near the lake” you could say, “The lake stared through the trees, a wide grey eye trapped in a perpetual state of weeping.” 2
Create a thesis statement. A thesis statement is the idea that governs the whole essay. It states the purpose of the paper and governs all of the information that is in the paper. An example of a descriptive thesis statement is: My backyard is like a jungle. This thesis statement does not mean that your backyard is literally a jungle, but that the different aspects of your backyard make it seem like a jungle. 2 3
Draw five columns on a piece of paper with each column labeled one of the five senses. These include taste, touch, sight, sound, and smell. This list will help you keep your thoughts straight when describing your essay. Using your five senses, write down sensations and feelings you associate with your topic. 3 4
Review your list and choose the most dominant details to write about. These details should be the items that best support your thesis and are the most interesting. These details will be made into your body paragraphs.
Create an outline that lists what each paragraph of your essay is going to discuss. Typically, middle and high schoolers writing descriptive essays will be asked to write a 5 paragraph essay.College level students and above have more free-reign regarding how long to make their essays. 5 paragraph essays are structured to include an introductory paragraph that includes a thesis statement, three body paragraphs proving your thesis statement, and a concluding paragraph that summarizes what you have said in the rest of your essay. Method 2 of 3: Writing your essay
Structure your essay in a way that makes sense for your topic. If you are writing about an event, give your paragraphs a chronological order. If you are writing about a place or thing, try ordering your paragraphs so that they go from general to specific. Example: First paragraph: The things you notice when you look at a house from the outside. Second paragraph: The sights, sounds, smells, tastes, feelings etc. that you experience when you are inside the house. Third paragraph: A description of your favorite section of the house. 2 2
Write your introductory paragraph. The introductory paragraph establishes the main ideas of the essay and sets the tone. This paragraph should include an introduction to your topic followed by your thesis statement. 3 3
Create a topic sentence at the beginning of each body paragraph. This sentence lets your reader know what the paragraph is going to be about. It should be clear and concise. Each topic sentence should relate back to the thesis statement. Example: Thesis statement: My backyard is like a jungle that I love to explore. Topic Sentence: When I climb a tree in my backyard, I feel like I am climbing a tall jungle tree. 4 4
Write your body paragraphs based on your topic sentences. Body paragraphs are where you get to prove that your thesis is true. Always keep in my mind that everything you write in your body paragraph should relate to your topic sentence and your thesis. Example: The trees in my backyard are filled with the music of birds. Emeralds leaves sway in sun-filled breeze. Etc. 5 5
Provide sensory details that support your thesis. Use literary tools like.
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