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Serial And Parallel Communication Comparison Essay

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Lab Report on Serial Communication and Accessing IBM Comm

Lab Report on Serial Communication and Accessing IBM Comm. Ports Essay

Lab Report on Serial Communication and Accessing IBM Comm. Ports Lab Title: Serial Communication and accessing IBM comm. ports using DOS and BIOS


1. One of the main differences between serial and parallel communication is the number of wires used to transfer the data. In parallel communication, there is one line for each data bit that is being transferred where as in the case of serial communication the data is sent on a single line 1 bit at a time. The major advantage of using serial data transfers is that it is much cheaper to build the system. With only one line, any amount of data can be multiplexed and sent. A parallel transfer system would eventually have to add more lines to keep up with the increased amount of data.
2. Asynchronous communication lets all of the data move throughout the system independently which generally makes it harder to troubleshoot or design. A common clock that goes to all parts of the system clocks a synchronous communication system. Operations can only be performed within the system or circuit on each clock pulse. This will synchronize all of the communications within the circuit. Because everything happens at the same time, it is easier to predict the outputs of any component and therefore easier to troubleshoot and design than an asynchronous system.
3. There are three basic types of communication, simplex, half-duplex, and full-duplex. Simplex communication means that the communication can only go one direction such as a computer to a printer. There is no need for a printer to send data b.


. middle of paper.


. carrier signal 21 SQ Signal quality detector
9 - Positive voltage 22 RI Ring indicator
10 - Negative voltage 23 DRS Data rate selector
11 - Unassigned 24 SCTE Clock transmit external
12 SDCD Secondary DCD 25 BUSY Busy
13 SCTS Secondary CTS

2. Irvine, Kip R. Assembly Language for Intel-Based Computers. Upper Saddle
River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1999.

3. Miller, Gene H. Microcomputer Engineering. Flint, Michigan: Prentice Hall,
1999.

4. Olesky, Jerome E. and George B. Rutkowski, PE. Microprocessor and Digial
Computer Technology. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1981.

5. Tocci, Ronald J. and Neal S. Widmer. Digital Systems: Principles and
Applications. Columbus, Ohio: Prentice Hall, 1998.

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Parallel communication - The Full Wiki

Parallel communication: Wikis From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

In telecommunication and computer science. parallel communication is a method of sending several data signals simultaneously over several parallel channels. It contrasts with serial communication ; this distinction is one way of characterizing a communications link.

The basic difference between a parallel and a serial communication channel is the number of distinct wires or strands at the physical layer used for simultaneous transmission from a device. Parallel communication implies more than one such wire/strand, in addition to a ground connection. An 8-bit parallel channel transmits eight bits (or a byte ) simultaneously. A serial channel would transmit those bits one at a time. If both operated at the same clock speed. the parallel channel would be eight times faster. A parallel channel will generally have additional control signals such as a clock, to indicate that the data is valid, and possibly other signals for handshaking and directional control of data transmission.

Examples of parallel communication systems Comparison with serial links

Before the development of high-speed serial technologies, the choice of parallel links over serial links was driven by these factors:

  • Speed: Superficially, the speed of a parallel data link is equal to the number of bits sent at one time times the bit rate of each individual path; doubling the number of bits sent at once doubles the data rate. In practice, skew reduces the speed of every link to the slowest of all of the links.
  • Cable length: Crosstalk creates interference between the parallel lines, and the effect worsens with the length of the communication link. This places an upper limit on the length of a parallel data connection that is usually shorter than a serial connection.
  • Complexity: Parallel data links are easily implemented in hardware, making them a logical choice. Creating a parallel port in a computer system is relatively simple, requiring only a latch to copy data onto a data bus. In contrast, most serial communication must first be converted back into parallel form by a universal asynchronous receiver/transmitter (UART) before they may be directly connected to a data bus.

The decreasing cost of integrated circuits. combined with greater consumer demand for speed and cable length, has led to parallel communication links becoming deprecated in favor of serial links; for example, IEEE 1284 printer ports vs. USB. Parallel ATA vs. Serial ATA. and SCSI vs. FireWire .

On the other hand, there has been a resurgence of parallel data links in RF communication. Rather than transmitting one bit at a time (as in Morse code and BPSK ), well-known techniques such as PSM. PAM. and Multiple-input multiple-output communication send a few bits in parallel. (Each such group of bits is called a "symbol "). Such techniques can be extended to send an entire byte at once (256-QAM ). More recently techniques such as OFDM have been used in Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line to transmit over 224 bits in parallel, and in DVB-T to transmit over 6048 bits in parallel.

References

What is the difference between serial and parallel transmission?

What is the difference between serial and parallel transmission? Quick Answer

Parallel transmission refers to a situation when binary data transfer occurs simultaneously, while serial transmission refers to one in which binary data transfer occurs one bit at a time. Parallel transmission is faster, but more complicated, because each bit travels along its own data path. Serial transmission is normally slower but simpler, because each bit shares a data path.

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Credit: Getty Images AsiaPac Getty Images News Getty Images

Parallel and serial transmission are two methods computers use to transfer digital data. Laptops and desktops, especially if they are older models, may have both parallel and serial ports.

Parallel transmission is usually faster and moves more data, since it transfers eight bits. However it is more expensive since each bit must have a separate path. This means that each bit must have its own wire inside the cable. A parallel cable therefore has eight wires. This type of cable is also prone to distortion and noise. Older printers and table-top scientific devices such as multimeters are examples of equipment that uses parallel ports to communicate.

Serial transmission moves data one bit at a time, and so the cables only need one pair of wires to transfer data. One wire receives data, and the other sends it. Serial transmission is therefore cheaper, and it is preferred over parallel when there is a need to transfer data over long distances. On older computers, external modems are examples of devices that use serial communications. Serial ports on computers are also called COM ports. Serial transmission is normally slower than parallel transmission. However, some newer serial transmission circuits are able to match or even excel parallel transmission’s data transfer speed.

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Hardware Access - Free Pascal wiki

Hardware Access

This page describes various ways of accessing hardware devices on Lazarus. These devices include, but are not limited to: ISA, PCI, USB, parallel port, serial port.

Uniform multi-platform access to hardware devices is not implemented by the Free Pascal Runtime Library (RTL) or by the LCL - the underlying operating systems are often different enough to make that very difficult. Therefore, this article will basically cover hardware access methods on different platforms. The code can be compiled on different environments using conditional compiles, like this:

It is not known yet if Mac OS X/x86 will allow HW access. It may disallow it, but it is assumed that drivers like io.dll will appear in time.

Parallel and Serial Comparison

ISA cards, PCI cards and the Parallel Port communicate with the computer using a parallel protocol. The Serial Port and USB devices work with a serial protocol. Because the processor and thus programming languages all work on a parallel approach to data, access to these kinds of protocols is easier to be implemented on the software side. When an Integer variable is accessed for example, its value can be accessed with a single command. With a serial protocol however, only one bit at a time can be accessed and the pieces need to be "glued" together to understand the data.

Serial communication is difficult to be implemented directly, but it can be pretty easy if pre-made component are used. It is also harder on the hardware side, so many devices use specialised integrated circuits or microcontrolers to implement it.

Now a brief comparison of hardware access protocols will be given:

Hardware implementation difficulty

Parallel Communication Using inpout32.dll for Windows

Windows has different ways to access hardware devices on the 9x and NT series. On the 9x series (95, 98, Me) programs can access the hardware directly, just like they did on DOS. The NT series (Windows NT and XP), however, do not allow this approach. On this architecture, all communication with hardware ports must be through a device driver. This is a security mechanism, but developing a driver for small projects can cost too much in terms of time and money.

Fortunately there is a library that solves this problem. If Windows NT is detected, it decompresses the HWInterface.sys kernel device driver and installs it. If Windows 9x is detected, it simply uses assembler opcodes to access the hardware.

The library has only two functions, Inp32 and Out32, and their use is quite intuitive.

The library will be loaded dynamically, so define both functions first:

  • 'Address' represents the address of the port to be accessed
  • 'Out32' sends data to the port specified by 'Address'
  • 'Inp32' returns a byte from the port specified by 'Address'

Now the library can be loaded. This may be implemented in the 'OnCreate' method of the program's main form:

If the library is loaded on 'OnCreate', it must be unloaded in 'OnDestroy':

PARALLEL COMMUNICATION: definition of PARALLEL COMMUNICATION and synonyms of PARALLEL COMMUNICATION (English)

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Arabic Bulgarian Chinese Croatian Czech Danish Dutch English Estonian Finnish French German Greek Hebrew Hindi Hungarian Icelandic Indonesian Italian Japanese Korean Latvian Lithuanian Malagasy Norwegian Persian Polish Portuguese Romanian Russian Serbian Slovak Slovenian Spanish Swedish Thai Turkish Vietnamese

definition - PARALLEL COMMUNICATION Parallel communication

In telecommunication and computer science. parallel communication is a method of sending several data signals simultaneously over several parallel channels. It contrasts with serial communication ; this distinction is one way of characterizing a communications link.

The basic difference between a parallel and a serial communication channel is the number of distinct wires or strands at the physical layer used for simultaneous transmission from a device. Parallel communication implies more than one such wire/strand, in addition to a ground connection. An 8-bit parallel channel transmits eight bits (or a byte ) simultaneously. A serial channel would transmit those bits one at a time. If both operated at the same clock speed. the parallel channel would be eight times faster. A parallel channel will generally have additional control signals such as a clock, to indicate that the data is valid, and possibly other signals for handshaking and directional control of data transmission.

Examples of parallel communication systems Comparison with serial links

Before the development of high-speed serial technologies, the choice of parallel links over serial links was driven by these factors:

  • Speed: Superficially, the speed of a parallel data link is equal to the number of bits sent at one time times the bit rate of each individual path; doubling the number of bits sent at once doubles the data rate. In practice, clock skew reduces the speed of every link to the slowest of all of the links.
  • Cable length: Crosstalk creates interference between the parallel lines, and the effect worsens with the length of the communication link. This places an upper limit on the length of a parallel data connection that is usually shorter than a serial connection.
  • Complexity: Parallel data links are easily implemented in hardware, making them a logical choice. Creating a parallel port in a computer system is relatively simple, requiring only a latch to copy data onto a data bus. In contrast, most serial communication must first be converted back into parallel form by a universal asynchronous receiver/transmitter (UART) before they may be directly connected to a data bus.

The decreasing cost of integrated circuits. combined with greater consumer demand for speed and cable length, has led to parallel communication links becoming deprecated in favor of serial links; for example, IEEE 1284 printer ports vs. USB. Parallel ATA vs. Serial ATA. and SCSI vs. FireWire .

On the other hand, there has been a resurgence of parallel data links in RF communication. Rather than transmitting one bit at a time (as in Morse code and BPSK ), well-known techniques such as PSM. PAM. and Multiple-input multiple-output communication send a few bits in parallel. (Each such group of bits is called a "symbol "). Such techniques can be extended to send an entire byte at once (256-QAM ). More recently techniques such as OFDM have been used in Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line to transmit over 224 bits in parallel, and in DVB-T to transmit over 6048 bits in parallel.

References